THE QUEEN'S AMBASSADOR TO THE SULTAN Memoirs of sir Henry A. Layard's Constantinople Embassy 1877-18
Preface Editor's Note Introduction 1877
1. On the way to the Turkish Capital – Arrival at Constantinople – First visit to the Grand Vizier – Call on the Minister for Foreign Affairs – Public audience of the Sultan – Relations with Russia – Russia declares war – The Porte and the declaration of war .
2. The Greek Patriarch – Ahmet Vefik Effendi – The British colony – The non-Muslims – Serbia and Greece – Hobart Pasha – The military situation – British military observers – The Porte and Germany – The Turkish Parliament – The Protestants in Turkey – The war in Asia – The war in Europe and Rumania – "English" Said Pasha and M. Zarifi – Relations with the Sultan – The financial situation – The war – Turkey and Persia – The Bulgarian prisoners – The summer embassy – Turkish victories in Asia – A visit to the Sultan – The expedition to the coast of Circassia – Germany, Austria, France and Italy in Constantinople – Public peace and order – The fall of Ardahan – Servia – Demonstration of the softas – Another audience of the Sultan – The Turkish army in the East – Bulgaria – Efforts at mediation
3. The Turkish Chamber – Reception for the members of the Chamber – The Greek Consul General – The Island of Crete – Turkey and Greece – Abdul Hamid and Murad – Russian peace conditions – Lord Beaconsfield – The Turkish Parliament – A Turkish mission to Afghanistan – Military operations – Corresponding with Lord Derby – The Russian advance in Europe 4. Continuation of the war – A visit to the Sultan – The Turks and the Hungarians – The Sultan and the war – Peace feelers – Admiral Hornby's visit – The Russian advance in the Balkans – The Gurko raid and Russian atrocities – The Sultan's request for British intervention – Turkish defensive measures – The Russian advance in the Balkans – Britain and the Dardanelles – The British fleet – Turkish victory at Plevna – Intervention for peace – The war in Circassia – The Kurds – The war in the Black Sea – The military situation in the Balkans – Russia, Servia and Rumania – Massacres in Rumelia – Refugees – The Bulgarian ‘Avengers'
5. Feelers for peace – Turkish successes in Europe and Asia – Hobart Pasha's actions – A naval encounter – The Shipka Pass – Greece – Servia – Crete – Ahmet Vefik governor of Adrianople – British influence reestablished – Dinner with the Sultan – Atrocities – Adm. Commeral's visit to the front – Austrian reaction – Mr Fawcett's tour of the Southern Balkans – Military operations – Death of Julian Layard – The Gueshov brothers – A trip to Troy – Appointments as ambassador confirmed
6. Victories and reverses in Asia – Mehmed Ali Pasha – The situation on the European front – Reverses in Asia – British visitors of the Sultan – The end of hopes of mediation – Austrian attempt at mediation – A personal appeal of the Sultan to the Emperor – Mehmed Ali Pasha and mediation – The war in the Balkans – The Sultan on peace prospects and Bulgarian insurgents – Turkish terms for peace – The Asian front – Life in Pera – Massacres in the Balkans and refugees – The refugees – Greece and Servia – The military situation in November – Interview with the Grand Vizier – Layard's position – Proclamation to the Bulgarians – The Fleet
7. Territorial Compensation for England – The military situation – Russian Pretentions – British Policy – A visit to the Sultan – Fall of Plevna – Appeal to the Powers – A Council at the Porte – Opening of the Parliament – Request of the Sultan – Servia declares war – The Porte and Austria – Germany's attitude – Defensive measures – British Policy – Russian advance 1878
8. The Great Powers and Turkey – Changes in the Turkish Ministry – The new Chamber – Further Russian advance and requests for an armistice – England and Turkey – The Armistice – The Turkish Parliament – Surrender of the Turkish Army at Shipka – Application for an armistice – The new Grand Vizier – Deterioriation of the military situation – The refugees – Russian advance on Andrinople – The threat to the Capital – Start of the negotiations for an armistice – Austria – The Fleet – Surrender of Adrianople – The Dardanelles and the Bolair lines – Attitude of the Sultan – The situation in the Capital – The bases of peace – The Fleet is ordered to sail through the Straits
9. Negotiations for the armistece – Count Andrassy's reaction – The armistice negotiations – The situation in Constantinople – The armistice arrangements – Signature of the armistice – Greek pretensions – Crete – A visit to the refugees – The Parliament, administrative reforms and the new Prime Minister – Russians breach the armistice – Peace protocol – A conversation with Grand Duke Nicholas
10. The Fleet ordered up to Constantinople – The prorogation of the Parliament – A secret Turco-Russian treaty ? – Greek irruptions into Thessaly – Russia threatens to occupy Constantinople – The Sultan and the British fleet – Turkish suspicions of England's motives – Layard's views on Server Pasha – Project to purchase Turkish ironclads – The French Ambassador M. Fournier – Arrest of Süleyman Pasha
11. Negotiations for peace preliminaries at Adrinople – The British squadron – British reaction to Russian demands – The Russians move to San Stefano – The British Government approves Layard's conduct – A visit to the Fleet – Russia and England – Signature of the preliminaries of peace – Diner with the Sultan – Greek intrigues – The Negroponte affair – The Russians on the Bosphorus – A visit to the Sultan with Mrs Layard – Russia and the Bosphorus – Turkish officiers' view of England – Rauf Pasha and the ratification of the Treaty of San Stefano – Grand Duke Nicholas' reception by the Sultan – A conversation with the Sultan – Resignation of Lord Derby and changes in the British Cabinet
12. The Greeks and the Treaty – An interview with the Sultan about Russian demands – Danger of a Turco-Russian collision – Layard's views on the Treaty of San Stefano – The new Foreign Secretary Lord Salisbury – Meeting with the Sultan about the defence of his Capital – Count Andrassy's proposal – The insurrection in Thessaly – The Musulman refugees in Constantinople – A visit to the Fleet at Ismid – Fall of Ahmet Vefik Pasha and his replacement by Sadık Pasha – The Russians and the British Fleet – Sanitary conditions in the Capital – Change in the Russian Command
13. Shoumla and Batoum – Mount Rhodope Rising – Thessaly and Epirus – A ride to Mashlak with the Sultan – The Austrian proposal on Bosnia and Herzegovina – The new Russian ambassador – A forward movement of the Russian army – Bulgarians and Turkish refugees – The French Ambassador and the Church of Bethlehem – Ali Souavi's conspiracy – Effects of the conspiracy on the Sultan – Sadık Pasha is dismissed and Mehmed Rüşdü Pasha named Grand Vizier – A visit to the Sultan in the wake of Ali Souavi's attempt – Discussion with the Grand Vizier about the Sultan's mental state – The Greek border – The Cretan uprising – Mehmed Rüşdü Pasha
14. The Cyprus Convention – Muhammerah as an alternative to Cyprus – Changes in the Turkish Ministry – The Congress meets at Berlin – The "rectification" of the Greek borders and the Cretan issue – Rumania's rapprochement to Turkey – Turkish Plenipotentiaries, to the Congress of Berlin – Changes in the Sultan's household – A diner with the Sultan
15. Threatening position of the Russians before Constantinople – Varna, Shumla, and Batoum – The "Salisbury-Shuvalov" agreement – Negotiations at Berlin – The Fleet moves to the Princes' Islands – The evacuation of Varna and Shumla – The Sultan and the Cyprus Convention – The Congress of Berlin – The transfer of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria – The Pomaks – The sufferings of the Musulmans of Rumelia – The Mixed Commission – Correspondence with Mr Gladstone about the cruelties suffered by the Musulmans 16. The Armenians – American missionaries and the spread of Protestantism – Russia and the Armenians – The Porte and the Armenians during the War – The ‘Protestant Question’ – The Sultan and the Congress – Assessment of the work of the Congress – Mehmed Ali Pasha's mission to Albania and his assassination
17. The Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina – The Pacification of Crete – The rectification of the Greek frontier – A scheme for a union between Turkey and Greece – The surrender of Schumla, Varna and Batoum – Invitation to dine with the Sultan together with Admiral Hornby – The order of succession to the Ottoman throne – The Sultan's views on education of the Imperial Princes – The Sultan's gift to Queen Victoria – A memorandum to the Sultan – A visit to General Todleben at San Stefano – Negotiations with Austria over Bosnia and Herzegovina 18. Reforms in the Asiatic Provinces – Evacuation of the Russian forces and withdrawal of the British fleet – Hayreddin Pasha – France and Tunis – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Afghanistan – The Sultan's stables – A visit to the Fleet at Artaki – Intrigues in Istanbul – Midhat Pasha – Crete – Lady Layard receives the Nishan Shevakat – The Porte's reply about the reforms – Effects of the Russian occupation and British reaction – Afghanistan – Various negotiations with the Porte – The Porte and Austria's occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Reforms and the Gendarmerie – The Sultan fears a renewal of the war – Greek agitation – Hayreddin Pasha becomes Grand Vizier – Russian policy – General condition of the Ottoman Empire 1879
19. The Fleet moved back to Ismid – Hayreddin Pasha's Ministry – Negotiations with Austria over Bosnia and Herzegovina – Rustem Pasha is suggested as governor of Eastern Rumelia – The French Embassy and Roman Catholics – Russia's overtures to the Sultan – The Sultan's character – Safvet Pasha receives the Star of India – Health problems and leave of absence – Six weeks in England – Rectification of the Greek border – Albanians and Montenegro – The Radicals – Return to Constantinople – Audience of the Sultan to present him with the Queen's letter...
20. Aleko Vogoridès Pasha appointed governeur of Eastern Rumelia – Austria's occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina – Incident at a diner with the Sultan – A visit to Ahmet Vefik Pasha at Broussa – The deposition of Khedive Ismail Pasha – The delimitation of the Greek Frontier – The Albanian districts of Gussigne and Plava – Hayreddin Pasha falls in disfavour – A personal appeal to the Sultan – Changes in the Ministry – The Sultan's views on reforms – Condition in the Asiatic Provinces – Hayreddin Pasha's relations with the Powers – Russian evacuation of Eastern Rumelia and relations between the two Empires – The visit of Alexander of Battenberg to the Sultan – Insecurity in the provinces and the capital – Baker Pasha – Views on the reforms – Visit to Syria
21. The situation in Syria – French policy in Syria – The Sultan's promises remain unfulfilled – The Sultan's state of mind – A discussion with the Sultan over Syria – Said Pasha is appointed Prime Minister – A possible change of policy on the part of the Sultan – Midhat Pacha – Impression upon the British Governments of the change of Ministry – Reforms in the Asiatic provinces – A change in the Sultan's policy as regards England – Attacks on England in the Turkish Press – The Sultan complains of the unfriedly conduct of the British Governement – Rustem Pasha's nomination as Government of Erzeroum – Appointment of European Inspectors – The surrender of Gussigne and Plava to Montenegro – Deceptive progress in various pending matters – Sheikh Obeid-Ullah and relations with Persia – Examples of the Sultan's want of good faith – The Sultan and the Army – The Sultan and ‘Panislamism’ – Dr. Koelle and Ahmet Tevfik Efendi – French policy with regards to Turkey – The general situation and efforts to reassert British influence – England's relations with Turkey 1880
22. Negotiations with Austria about Bosnia and Herzegovina – Eastern Rumelia – Persecution of the Musulman population by the Bulgarians – The districts of Gussigne and Plava – The Sultan and England – Conspiracies – The Slave Trade Convention – England and a Russo-Turkish understanding – The murder of the Russian military attaché – The capture of Colonel Synge by brigands – The Greek border – The Sultan and England – The French Embassy – The Montenegrin border – The new Liberal Government and the Sultan – Layard and the new Liberal Cabinet – Layard recalled – An audience with the Sultan – The Sultan's children – Mr Goschen's speech to the Sultan – The Protestant Community – The Sultan's gift to Lady Layard – Departure from Constantinople – A record of the mission – Christians and Musulmans – The valedictory despatch – A final portrait of the Sultan